Frequently Asked Questions

Answers to the top questions about Neurofeedback.

1. If it works so well, why haven’t I heard of Neurofeedback?

2. What is the brain training experience like?

3. How effective is brain training; what kind of results can I expect?

4. Is it safe?

5. Are there any side effects to the BrainTrainUT program?

6. How soon will I feel a benefit and how many sessions will I need?

7. Is Neurofeedback beneficial for everyone?

8. What are your qualifications and how up-to-date is your equipment?

9. What are the different types of Neurofeedback?

10. What’s different about Infra-Low Frequency (ILF) Neurofeedback?

11. How much does it cost?

12. Where can I do it?

13. What research is there supporting Neurofeedback?

14. How many electrodes do you use?

1. If it works so well, why haven’t I heard of Neurofeedback?

Neurofeedback intersects Medicine, Psychiatry and Psychology, but isn’t owned by any of these fields. So today it isn’t is taught at Medical School, by Psychology faculty, or as part of Psychiatry specialist training.

In asking ‘Why do Doctors fail’, the respected US doctor and writer Atul Gawande describes this as ineptitude – the knowledge exists but isn’t applied everywhere it could help.

Despite the evidence of the power of Neurofeedback going back over 50  years, it was only in the last few years that conventional science has accepted that the brain could change – a concept now known as Neuroplasticity. Before this was accepted, the idea that Neurofeedback could change the brain was officially ‘impossible’ despite overwhelming evidence in the affirmative. Not only has science finally caught up with what many have known to be true for decades, the cost of bringing these treatments to you had been very high. Highly complex and large equipment cost millions to own and operate. With advances in digital technology, gaming software and processes refined over many years, Neurofeedback has now become a commercially viable treatment option.

Most importantly, the understanding of the best clinical approaches and equipment design for brain training has improved to the point where now over ten thousand Neurofeedback Practitioners are using this technology to help clients improve their brain function. Although individual practitioners have been carrying out Neurofeedback in increasing numbers in the USA, Canada, continental Europe and Australia, it is still relatively unheard of in these countries, and not quite mainstream. In Utah, BrainTrainUT aims to raise awareness and enable thousands of people to benefit from this drug-free, natural approach.

2. What is the brain training experience like?

Clients enjoy the Neurofeedback sessions. The brain is curious about the feedback and seems to remain interested even when some repetition is necessary to train your brain to become better at self-regulation.

Electrode sensors will be attached to your head to monitor your brain waves. This involves cleaning the scalp with an alcohol swab and attaching the sensors using a special paste, similar in consistency to Vaseline, but water soluble. Feedback to your brain is provided through the use of video, audio, and if you choose tactile feedback. You can choose your method of feedback from session to session, but usually people settle on a preferred method. There is a choice of video games that you ‘control’ with your brain, from very simple ‘pong’ type games to car racing and jet ski games. You can also choose from a range of movies, documentaries, TV shows or music videos. You are not restricted to any particular movie.

The game will go faster, or the video will get louder or bigger, as the brain changes state. As you relax, the brain is able to ‘tune in’ to the feedback and adjust in response. This all happens subconsciously, which means you don’t consciously try to direct the brain one way or another, but just relax and allow the brain to use its own ability to self-regulate.

3. How effective is brain training, what kind of results can I expect?

Studies have repeatedly shown Neurofeeedback to be effective in a wide variety of clinical applications as well as for peak performance. In cases where Neurofeedback is an alternative to medication, Neurofeedback brain training is not only safer than medication as there are no dangerous side effects, but the benefits of the treatment also remain after the program has finished. Conversely, with medication you are simply controlling the symptoms, not solving the problem.

But like with any form of training, Neurofeedback brain training needs you to be motivated and committed to the training program. It doesn’t work for everyone, however, and the only way to find out if it works or not is to try it.

4. Is it safe?

Absolutely. In fact, no one has been harmed since Neurofeedback began in the 1950s. The sensors we attach to your scalp are simply there to listen to the brain; there is no stimulation or signal transmitted by the equipment. The brain does all the real work, adapting in response to the feedback.

5. Are there any side effects to the BrainTrainUT program?

There are no side effects in the conventional sense because the training is non-invasive and does not involve any medication whatsoever. Because everyone is different, your Neurofeedback Practitioner will carefully monitor how your symptoms react to the training. Checking, for example, your sleep patterns to ensure you are given the ideal treatment. If, for example, you developed a headache during an early training session your Practitioner will adjust the feedback settings to modify the reward frequency, ensuring that future sessions are free from discomfort. Although clinical-grade Neurofeedback is certainly not a toy, in the hands of skilled and responsible practitioners you should be confident that any side-effects can be minimized and overcome.

6. How soon will I feel a benefit and how many sessions will I need?

Clients often feel different after just the first session, although it will take multiple sessions for the new ways of working to be fully learned by the brain. Just as different people learn at different rates, so do different brains, and some have more to learn than others. The spiral in our logo represents how each session builds upon the previous ones to accumulate the benefits. We ask that you commit to 20 sessions; this will deliver significant, lasting improvements for most clients. If your condition is particularly serious, you may wish to continue beyond 20 sessions, but this is something you would discuss with your Neurofeedback Practitioner towards the end of your 20 sessions.

7. Is Neurofeedback beneficial for everyone?

In most cases Neurofeedback promotes a learning process and long-term improvements are expected. Neurofeedback is a learning process,  so the environment needs to be supportive of learning, the brain needs to be physically fit to be able to learn, and there has to be a motivation to learn. If you attend French classes you will be successful only if you are motivated to learn.

Reasons why Neurofeedback could be less beneficial include food intolerance, dietary insufficiency, digestive mal-absorption, heavy metal toxicities or excesses in certain minerals, problems in visual processing (to receive the feedback information), deficits in blood glucose regulation (dysglycemia) affecting brain function, as well as poor sleep or poor sleep hygiene which can impact the training process. Degenerative conditions can lead to a fading of the training effect, structural injury in the brain (i.e. stroke injury; brain tumor; arteriovenous malformations; hydrocephalus; history of meningitis, etc.) limit what can be accomplished (we can’t repair damaged areas), and cerebral under-perfusion, which can be a side-effect of blood pressure medications, can limit effectiveness.

Another important factor that could impact the level of improvement are environmental factors within the home or school that hinder training success: emotionally unsettled or even a traumatizing home environment; being subjected to bullying behavior at school, etc. In these cases the brain needs to ‘survive’ and there is little room for ‘learning’. For more detailed information about factors that could impact the benefits of Neurofeedback, please click here.

8. What are your qualifications and how up to date is your equipment?

As a leader in the Neurofeedback field, we have very close relations with EEG Info, the world’s leaders in Neurofeedback for therapeutic applications. With BrainTrainUT, you can be confident that as soon as the latest upgrade is released, we will offer it. BrainTrainUT uses the methodology and equipment taught, developed and practiced by EEG Info, the organization created by Dr Siegfried and Susan Othmer, pioneers who have led the field of clinical practice, equipment and trained thousands of people in Neurofeedback in the last 30 years. 

With BrainTrainUT you can trust us to have access to whatever’s right for your case. We  ensure BrainTrainUT clients always get the best.

While our technology is the most advanced and progressive in the field, we shouldn’t forget that the most complicated part of the feedback system is the brain, and every client is different. So we believe the most important skill is the ability to take a client-centric approach to training. Our approach has been developed and refined over more than 25 years, led by clinical practice, making our approach the leading 21st century Neurofeedback approach based around the whole client.

We see Neurofeedback as an important part of medicine that the medical community is still learning about. We complement and augment conventional medicine, and collaborate with the existing healthcare system.

Our experience at the highest levels of private and public healthcare means we lead the field in integrating Neurofeedback with your overall healthcare experience. All of our Neurofeedback Practitioner professionals have qualifications in Neurofeedback theory, equipment and practice and have attended practicum training courses personally taught by the Othmers and their clinical staff. We supplement these with with ongoing professional training. We also take part in regular supervisory calls with Susan Othmer who has been described as ‘the best Neurofeedback clinician in the World’, and any of our practitioners can schedule a personal call with the Othmer clinical staff at any time.

With BrainTrainUT you are getting the best – delivered by the best – supported by the best – why choose anyone else ?

9. What are the different types of Neurofeedback ?

Neurofeedback has evolved in different directions over its 50-year history and it can be difficult to choose, as every approach makes their own claims on how they are different. 

Traditional Neurofeedback

Original protocols used a ‘one size fits all’ approach. Everyone received the same Neurofeedback training based upon an understanding of what protocols work on a general basis. They don’t assume that the goal should be a certain ‘average’, they focus on maximizing brain activity in certain ways. Although it has been around for a long time, this approach has value and is still used by the most expensive Neurofeedback training in the world at the Biocybernaut Institute,  at $15,000 for a week of intensive training.

QEEG-Guided Neurofeedback (also known as 3G or QEEG LoRETA)

Some Neurofeedback practices focus on the idea of using a Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG) which compares your brainwaves with ‘average’ brainwaves for your age and can display ‘3D’ images that show how your brainwaves compare with the ‘average’, using an open source algorithm called ‘LoRETA’.

You also get a written report with lots of data and diagrams that show how you brainwaves compared with the ‘average’. 

The limitation with this approach is it assumes there is such a thing as an ‘average’ brain that we should all aspire to. Our experience is that high-performing executives, peak athletes or autistic children do not have an ‘average’ brain and our focus is not on ‘averaging’ but building on strengths and reducing limitations.

Another point to bear in mind if you are considering a normative-QEEG is what information you want to get from the report – clients often come to us with reports from other providers that have lots of data but but little if any information on what your QEEG actually means.

There is no doubt that 3D-QEEGs create very cool images and some clients find it interesting to see how their electrical brain activity compares with the ‘average’. 


We don’t need a QEEG to deliver endogenous Neurofeedback (see below), but if we utilized a QEEG this approach is the one that would be used by BrainTrainUT.

Endogenous (Infra Low Frequency) Neurofeedback

2 generations on from QEEG-Guided Neurofeedback,  we have the capability to train at Infra Low Frequencies, where we are training the core control networks of the nervous system, using the nervous systems’ inherent ability to self-regulate to maximise performance.

We don’t ‘tell’ the brain how to change based upon 20 year-old databases as with QEEG-Guided,  we use the much more powerful approach of using the brains’ own ability to learn through neuroplasticity. Some of the key differences between Infra-Low Frequency Neurofeedback and QEEG-Guided Neurofeedback:


QEEG-Guided NF aka 3D or LoRETA Neurofeedback

Infra-Low Frequency NF
Focus Brainwave averaging Symptom improvement and performance maximisation
Objective Average brain performance Maximum brain performance
Mechanism Operant Conditioning discovered 50 years ago – tell the brain how it should change to become ‘average’ Endogenous Neuromodulation first available in 2012 – give the brain information to enable the brain’s natural ability to self-regulate and change itself through neuroplasticity
Reference database 30 years old Not applicable – assumes that every brain is unique
Reward frequencies Traditional frequency bands Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Theta Infra-Low Frequencies, the core control networks of the nervous system that control the traditional frequency bands

The questions you need to ask yourself when making a decision about which approach to Neurofeedback is best for you are:-

  • Do I want to be ‘average’ OR the best I can be?
  • What do I really care about ? Making my brain waves average ? OR maximizing performance and relief from symptoms?
  • Would I rather use a computer database to ‘tell’ my brain how to change OR use my brain’s natural ability to self-regulate to change itself through neuroplasticity?
  • Often children with learning difficulties have specific talents that are far from average – do you want your children to be ‘average’ or to make the most of their talents?
  • What would a QEEG-based approach make of the brains of Richard Branson, Albert Einstein, Steve Jobs or Bill Gates? Would they be average or would the QEEG suggest their brains were ‘abnormal’ ?

The questions you need to ask Neurofeedback practitioners when making a decision about which approach to Neurofeedback is best for you are:-

  • How did you choose your particular approach? 
  • Do you have evidence for any specific claims that your approach is better than others?

10. What’s different about Infra-Low Frequency (ILF) Neurofeedback ?

Leading-edge research in the world of Neurofeedback is investigating the possibility of using  functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to provide real-time feedback. The exciting thing about fMRI research is that by presenting live images of their own brain activity to participants and challenging them to change the activity level in certain brain regions, they can restructure brain patterns in a single session.

fMRI Neurofeedback is so powerful because it is working on the primary regulatory networks or resting-state networks, the core control networks of the nervous system. However, the practical application of fMRI-based neurofeedback is handicapped by the fact fMRI scanners cost millions of dollars and weigh tons. But thanks to the work done with fMRI neurofeedback and the identification of the resting-state networks in the EEG, this same mechanism is now available through EEG neurofeedback, in the form of Infra-Low Frequency (ILF) Neurofeedback.

ILF is the latest generation of Neurofeedback and takes the capability of Neurofeedback beyond the so-called ‘deep-brain training’ of LoRETA. The term ‘Infra-Low’ comes from the fact that the frequencies being rewarded are below 0.1Hz, well below the traditional Neurofeedback reward frequencies. Before these frequencies were identified through fMRI experiments they were not identified in the EEG, and are ignored by most current forms of Neurofeedback. Only available commercially since 2012, ILF is a modality of neurofeedback in the category of ‘endogenous neuromodulation’, which means that any changes are solely due to information being provided to the brain on its own state. In other words, the training doesn’t encourage the brain to shift itself in any particular direction, it just gives information back to the brain, an analogy is showing the brain itself in a ‘mirror’, often for the first time. We are using the most complex structure in the universe, the human brain, to decide what to do with the information.

ILF Neurofeedback reaches deep into the hierarchy of nervous system regulation, providing feedback on the brain’s primary regulatory networks or resting state-networks, the core control networks of the nervous system. Initially the brain recognizes its connection with the feedback signal, and then the signal becomes the object of control by the brain. A feedback loop has been established that allows the brain to enhance its own capacity for self-regulation. The brain’s natural development depends on similar feedback loops being established within the brain.

ILF Neurofeedback gives the brain more information, more directly, accelerating the learning process. By targeting we can focus on particular functions or competencies we would like to improve.

11. How much does it cost ?

When using any type of service we think you should know exactly what you’re paying. Small print and hidden costs annoy us as much as they annoy you. Our fees are simple. We do not require large package pricing to get you started, and we keep our prices low because we believe this amazing technology needs to be available to everyone.

Pay As You Go Prices
Individual Neurofeedback Session (one hour, including 45-50 minutes of Neurofeedback) $145 with a $50 discount if you pay on the day of service making it only $95 per session

We recommend you commit to 20 sessions (each session takes approximately one hour from arrival to departure). This ensures there is enough training for the brain to begin to self-regulate effectively. 

If you have any questions about our fee structure, please call us today at (801) 686-9334.

Learn about our clinic locations here.

We accept some insurance plans. 

Call us today at (801) 686-9334 to discuss your insurance needs.

12. Where can I do it ?

Full details are on our Locations page.

13. What research is there supporting Neurofeedback?

There is a large body of past, recent, and ongoing research and publication on the effectiveness of Neurofeedback. New studies and publications are frequently being made available throughout the world. The Neurofeedback experts at maintain and regularly update one of the best resource sites available. Please click here to be directed to this site. 

14. How many electrodes do you use?

This question is like asking a train company how many horses they use – it comes from a previous mindset.

The idea that by collecting information from 19 electrodes and providing feedback simultaneously, such a system must be superior to a focused bipolar montage using 4 electrodes is like suggesting you can train all your muscles simultaneously! 

The reality is that all Neurofeedback training information is simple. In the old days this was a red light or a green light. These days the feedback information is still very simple but is presented in more sophisticated ways.

If you are tempted by the implication that 19-channel feedback is fundamentally different, then we suggest you ask how the feedback differs before you pay more than necessary.

Have we answered your question? If not, please get in touch with us at BrainTrainUT  call today at (801) 686-9334.


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